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Suggested strategies or pedagogical approaches for Spoken Tutorials
Scenario based learning
Scenario based learning is a methodology which aims to promote deep learning and awareness. In this method, the learner is exposed to the given situation outlines in the scenario. The advantage of this approach is that it is very engaging and holds the attention of the viewers. This approach will be suitable for ‘Beginners’, ‘Intermediate’ as well as ‘Advanced’ difficulty level users.
In this approach, the content is explained through a conversation between two individuals (dialogue form). So for preparing this Spoken Tutorial, the script will be written in the form of a dialogue between two people. This approach will be suitable for ‘Beginner’ and ‘Intermediate’ difficulty level users.
The 2 possible dialogue strategies that can be used while writing a script are : Conversation: A conversation is a conventional but informal dialogue between two persons on equal terms, both talking and listening to each other. So while writing the script, a conversation type of dialogue can be used by adding characters who will have a conversation and through the course of this casual conversation, explain the concept in the tutorial. It can be a conversation between friends, colleagues etc. Expert consultation dialogue: In this kind of dialogue, a non-expert in a domain of skill or specialized knowledge consults an expert in order to get the expert's opinion or advice. It is given in a form he can use for his purposes, to solve a problem or go ahead with a course of action in an informed and intelligent way. In this case, two/more characters can be included where an expert explains the concept to a non-expert in a formal manner.
Example Rule Method
In this method, the example related to the content is given before actually starting with the content. This given example is very simple and easy to understand. The user is then given time to think upon that example. The content is then presented to the user. Giving example first will stimulate the user to think on the similar lines of the content. This will help the user to understand the content in a much better way. This approach will be suitable for ‘Beginner’, ‘Intermediate’ and ‘Advanced’ difficulty levels users.
Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction
Gain attention (Stimuli activates receptors)
- For effective learning, you must first capture the attention of the student. A multimedia program that begins with an animated title screen sequence accompanied by sound effects or music startles the senses with auditory or visual stimuli. An even better way to capture students' attention is to start each lesson with a thought- provoking question or interesting fact. Curiosity motivates students to learn. - Inform learners of objectives (Creates level of expectation for learning) Listing objectives at the stat of the session initiates the internal process of expectancy and helps motivate the learner to complete the lesson. These objectives should form the basis for assessment and possible certification as well. - Stimulate recall of prior learning (Retrieval and activation of short-term memory) Associating new information with prior knowledge can facilitate the learning process. It is easier for learners to encode and store information in long-term memory when there are links to personal experience and knowledge. A simple way to stimulate recall is to ask questions about previous experiences, an understanding of previous concepts, or a body of content. - Present the content (Selective perception of content) This event of instruction is where the new content is actually presented to the learner. Content should be chunked and organized meaningfully, and typically is explained and then demonstrated. To appeal to different learning modalities, a variety of media should be used if possible, including text, graphics, audio narration, and video. - Provide "learning guidance" (Semantic encoding for storage long-term memory) To help learners encode information for long-term storage, additional guidance should be provided along with the presentation of new content. Guidance strategies include the use of examples, non-examples, case studies, graphical representations, mnemonics, and analogies. - Elicit performance (practice) (Responds to questions to enhance encoding and verification) In this event of instruction, the learner is required to practice the new skill or behavior. Eliciting performance provides an opportunity for learners to confirm their correct understanding, and the repetition further increases the likelihood of retention. - Provide feedback (Reinforcement and assessment of correct performance) As learners practice new behavior it is important to provide specific and immediate feedback of their performance. Unlike questions in a post-test, exercises within tutorials should be used for comprehension and encoding purposes, not for formal scoring. Additional guidance and answers provided at this stage are called formative feedback. - Assess performance (Retrieval and reinforcement of content as final evaluation) Upon completing instructional modules, students should be given the opportunity to take (or be required to take) a post-test or final assessment. This assessment should be completed without the ability to receive additional coaching, feedback, or hints. Mastery of material, or certification, is typically granted after achieving a certain score or percent correct. A commonly accepted level of mastery is 80% to 90% correct. - Enhance retention and transfer to the job (Retrieval and generalization of learned skill to new situation) Determining whether or not the skills learned from a training program are ever applied back on the job often remains a mystery to training managers and a source of consternation for senior executives. Effective training programs have a "performance" focus, incorporating design and media that facilitate retention and transfer to the job. The repetition of learned concepts is a tried and true means of aiding retention, although often disliked by students. (There was a reason for writing spelling words ten times as grade school student). Creating electronic or online job-aids, references, templates, and wizards are other ways of aiding performance. This approach is applicable for beginners, intermediate and advanced learners.
In this approach, a guide just explains the content step by step. So the Spoken Tutorial is prepared such that a person directly narrates the content step by step. This approach is suitable for students who would be of ‘Advanced’ difficulty level users.