Appendix

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Suggested strategies or pedagogical approaches for Spoken Tutorials

Scenario based learning

 Scenario based learning is a methodology which aims to promote deep learning and awareness. In this method, the 
 learner is exposed to the given situation outlines in the scenario. The advantage of this approach is that it is 
 very engaging and holds the attention of the viewers. This approach will be suitable for ‘Beginners’, 
 ‘Intermediate’ as well as ‘Advanced’ difficulty level users.

Dialogue form

 In this approach, the content is explained through a conversation between two individuals (dialogue form). So for 
 preparing this Spoken Tutorial, the script will be written in the form of a dialogue between two people. This 
 approach will be suitable for ‘Beginner’ and ‘Intermediate’ difficulty level users. 
 The 2 possible dialogue strategies that can be used while writing a script are :
 Conversation: A conversation is a conventional but informal dialogue between two persons on equal terms, both talking 
 and listening to each other.
 So while writing the script, a conversation type of dialogue can be used by adding characters who will have a conversation and 
 through the course of this casual conversation, explain the concept in the tutorial. It can be a conversation between friends, 
 colleagues etc.
 Expert consultation dialogue: In this kind of dialogue,  a non-expert in a domain of skill or specialized knowledge consults 
 an expert in order to get the expert's opinion or advice.  It is given in a form he can use for his purposes, to solve a problem 
 or go ahead with a course of action in an informed and intelligent way.
 In this case, two/more characters can be included where an expert explains the concept to a non-expert in a formal manner.

Example Rule Method

 In this method, the example related to the content is given before actually starting with the content. This given 
 example is very simple and easy to understand. The user is then given time to think upon that example. The content 
 is then presented to the user. Giving example first will stimulate the user to think on the similar lines of the  
 content. This will help the user to understand the content in a much better way. This approach will be suitable  
 for ‘Beginner’, ‘Intermediate’ and ‘Advanced’ difficulty levels users.

Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction

Gain attention (Stimuli activates receptors)

 - For effective learning, you must first capture the attention of the student. A multimedia program that begins 
   with an animated title screen sequence accompanied by sound effects or music startles the senses with auditory 
   or visual stimuli. An even better way to capture students' attention is to start each lesson with a thought-
   provoking question or interesting fact. Curiosity motivates students to learn. 
 
 - Inform learners of objectives (Creates level of expectation for learning)
   Listing objectives at the stat of the session initiates the internal process of expectancy and helps motivate 
   the learner to complete the lesson.  These objectives should form the basis for assessment and possible 
   certification as well. 
 
 - Stimulate recall of prior learning (Retrieval and activation of short-term memory)
   Associating new information with prior knowledge can facilitate the learning process. It is easier for learners 
   to encode and store information in long-term memory when there are links to personal experience and knowledge. A 
   simple way to stimulate recall is to ask questions about previous experiences, an understanding of previous 
   concepts, or a body of content.
 
 - Present the content (Selective perception of content)
   This event of instruction is where the new content is actually presented to the learner. Content should be 
   chunked and organized meaningfully, and typically is explained and then demonstrated. To appeal to different 
   learning modalities, a variety of media should be used if possible, including text, graphics, audio narration, 
   and video.
 
 - Provide "learning guidance" (Semantic encoding for storage long-term memory)
   To help learners encode information for long-term storage, additional guidance should be provided along with the
   presentation of new content.  Guidance strategies include the use of examples, non-examples, case studies, 
   graphical representations, mnemonics, and analogies.
 
 - Elicit performance (practice) (Responds to questions to enhance encoding and verification)
   In this event of instruction, the learner is required to practice the new skill or behavior. Eliciting 
   performance provides an opportunity for learners to confirm their correct understanding, and the repetition 
   further increases the likelihood of retention.
 
 - Provide feedback (Reinforcement and assessment of correct performance)
   As learners practice new behavior it is important to provide specific and immediate feedback of their 
   performance. Unlike questions in a post-test, exercises within tutorials should be used for comprehension and 
   encoding purposes, not for formal scoring. Additional guidance and answers provided at this stage are called 
   formative feedback.
 
 - Assess performance (Retrieval and reinforcement of content as final evaluation)
   Upon completing instructional modules, students should be given the opportunity to take (or be required to take) 
   a post-test or final assessment. This assessment should be completed without the ability to receive additional 
   coaching, feedback, or hints. Mastery of material, or certification, is typically granted after achieving a 
   certain score or percent correct. A commonly accepted level of mastery is 80% to 90% correct. 
 
 - Enhance retention and transfer to the job (Retrieval and generalization of learned skill to new situation)
   Determining whether or not the skills learned from a training program are ever applied back on the job often 
   remains a mystery to training managers and a source of consternation for senior executives. Effective training 
   programs have a "performance" focus, incorporating design and media that facilitate retention and transfer to 
   the job. The repetition of learned concepts is a tried and true means of aiding retention, although often 
   disliked by students. (There was a reason for writing spelling words ten times as grade school student). 
   Creating electronic or online job-aids, references, templates, and wizards are other ways of aiding performance.
 
   This approach is applicable for beginners, intermediate and advanced learners.

Mentorship

  In this approach, a guide just explains the content step by step. So the Spoken Tutorial is prepared such that a 
  person directly narrates the content step by step. This approach is suitable for students who would be of ‘Advanced’ 
  difficulty level users.

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